A particularly active spring storm season left pockmarked roofs and tumbled fences throughout North Texas this year, including many in my master-planned community, thanks to an EF0 tornado that blew its way through the neighborhood thankfully missing my house - this time. The process of repairs and replacements was as fickle as the tornado itself. Some homeowners received immediate or at least prompt approval from the community Homeowners Association HOA and its Architectural Review Committee ARC, while others were forced to wait and wait and wait - which would be frustrating, even if this werent the wettest June in 13 years. In one case, a homeowners approval was inexplicably delayed so long, even though she was only looking to replace her damaged roof with the exact same roof, that she suffered leaks and damage to the interior of her home.
Thats one of the rubs of living in a community that is governed by an HOA: You need approval to do stuff to your house, even if that stuff is going to be an improvement over what it currently looks like. Its not the only potential downside, but there are also plenty of advantages associated with an HOA. And with more than 40 million U.S. households "or 53 of the owner-occupied households in the America" living with an HOA, according to HOA-USA - a number thats on the rise with new construction, of which more than 60 have an HOA - its something you might have to deal with. Get to know the pros and cons so there wont be any surprises.
Pro: An HOA protects your investment. "HOA rules and regulations help ensure homeowners keep their homes well maintained and in compliance with overall appearance standards," said Signature Homes. "Combined with proper care of amenities and common areas, the value of your home is more protected than one that does not have HOA oversight."
Con: Limits your creativity and individuality. HOAs may offer limited options when it comes to updates. Older neighborhoods may have a small color palette available to owners and may be >
Pro: You wont have to deal with neighbors painting their house pink or letting their grass grow to armpit height. "Homes within an HOA must meet the standards set by the association or face a fine, so youre less likely to see unkempt lawns, peeling paint or a garishly painted house," said Realtor.com. "Some HOAs have a design review board with the power to approve any changes to your homes exterior."
Con: Those restrictions can be Confining. An HOA demands that you ask permission before making any changes to your home - even if youre just talking about staining your fence the very same color. Depending on how finicky your HOA is, you might also get fined because your landscaper took the week off or because the basketball net in your driveway is torn true story.
Pro: File this under the umb>
Con: Looking to park your RV or boat in your driveway? An HOA may nix that idea. Be sure you check ahead of time to make sure this is allowed.
Pro: An HOA decision may not be final. Get a rejection from the HOA on your submitted request to make changes to your landscaping? You can always appeal and state your case.
Con: Deciding to "ask for forgiveness instead of permission" ra>
Pro: Some HOAs take care of things like your front-yard landscaping and trash removal, which means you dont have to pay for it or worry about it.
Con: That also may mean strict restrictions about what you can and cant plant in your front yard. You may have to reconsider those rose bushes.
Pro: You might not have to put in a pool because theres one in the community that youre helping to pay for through your HOA dues, but dont have to maintain.
Con: When the pool needs to be redone, itll be you and all your neighbors that are on the hook to pay for it - even if you never use it.
Pro: A pool is just the beginning. Planned communities with an HOA can have golf courses, tennis courts, clubhouses, playgrounds, and even private lakes for fishing and recreation.
Con: The more amenities you have, the more youre likely to pay in HOA dues. In a large masterplan with a couple of pools, a playground, and a tennis court, you can pay as little as 50 per month. The more homes that are added, the more the overall cost is spread out. A more "typical range" is 200ndash;400 per month, said Investopedia, adding that, "The more upscale the building and the morenbsp;amenitiesnbsp;it has, the higher the homeowners association fees are likely to be." In some condos, the fees may be higher if parking and security are considerations, and, especially, in a luxury building with amenities including a fitness center and concierge. "Hollywoods fancy Sierra Towers condo building, which is filled to the brim with amenities like 24-hour concierge service and valet parking.nbsp;They chargenbsp;residents of a 3,400-square-foot condo about 4,000 per month in HOAnbsp;fees," said Realtor.com.
Pro: Youve got a built-in mediator. "Involved in a tiff with your neighbor over that big oak tree thats losing limbs? You can settle some confrontations with your neighbors by taking your grievances to the HOAs board or management company," said RISMedia.
Con: Maybe youre the type that wants to "handle" grievances in your own way?
Pro: Some HOAs allow you to pay monthly, quarterly, or annually.
Con: Falling behind on HOA dues can lead to foreclosure. "This is another reason youll want to make sure those HOA fees are in your budget," said Credit.com. "An HOA can move to foreclose on your property if you fail to pay its dues and/or associated late fees. Laws can vary by state. A few, for instance, place limits on when an HOA can move to foreclose. So if youve fallen behind on payments, you may want to consult a local attorney about your best recourse."
Pro: Part of what youll pay to the HOA every month goes to a reserve fund, which can be used for neighborhood repairs and emergency needs.
Con: The reserves may not be enough to cover large expenses. "In addition to monthly fees, if a major expense such as a new roof or a new elevator comes up and there arent enough funds in the HOAs reserves to pay for it, the association may charge an extra assessment that can run into thousands of dollars," said Investopedia.
Whether youve inherited a large collection of items or a single bulky piece of furniture, its OK to let it go if you dont need or want it.
A dear friend of mine recently inherited a large collection of books. And by large, I mean over 1,000, many of them the bulky hardcover variety. He was, of course, touched by the gift - from a longtime mentor and fellow avid reader - but feels overwhelmed by the sheer size of the collection because hes downsizing his own home. When anyone suggests that he perhaps cull the collection a bit, he feels guilty, as if that would dishonor the memory of his friend.
This reminded me of past clients who insisted that we work around a big, bulky piece of furniture they didnt especially like or use, but felt obligated to keep because it was a gift from a loved one.
My father-in-law is fond of pointing out that when a funeral procession goes by, you never see a moving truck or armored car full of cash as part of the procession. In other words, you cant take this stuff with you when you go. So I say that instead of putting emotional energy into things, why not redirect it and instead cherish our thoughts and memories of those weve lost?
Several years ago, I unexpectedly lost a favorite uncle and, soon after that, my grandmother, followed by my grandfather. I adored these three immensely and felt much grief upon losing them, especially within such a short span of time. What helped me most in dealing with the loss was to sift through old photos and find one that perfectly captured each of them and their fun personalities. I keep those framed photos on display in my home, and whenever I walk by and glimpse their images, Im reminded of them and, no matter what my current mood, they make me smile.
Personally speaking, after Im gone, Id rather that my surviving family and friends keep a photo of me around to occasionally remember our good times together than feel saddled with my stuff.
I should point out that Id never advocate getting rid of items that have sentimental or historical value to you or your family. By all means, keep the pieces you hold dear. But if you dont want the items and are looking to lighten your load, you have options for dealing with them.
1. Keep one or two or a few. If you, like my friend, are gifted a large collection of items, perhaps hang on to a small number and give away the rest. I encouraged my friend to keep the books that are most interesting to him, or that most remind him of his friend, and then donate the remainder. I think this honors the memory of his friend without creating a burden for my friend.
If the inherited item is something like a large dining room set, perhaps keep one chair as a reminder of the person you lost and then find a good home for the other pieces.
2. Keep but modify it. Lets say youre given a large dining room set that you could use in your own home, except that some pieces are in rough shape or the >
Of course, I wouldnt recommend doing this if the item is an antique or otherwise has value being kept in its original condition.
3. Donate it. If you simply cant use or dont want the item, give it to someone who can use it and will appreciate it. That large and dated dining set may not work in your house, but I guarantee that theres a family out there who would love, use and cherish such a set. I think thats a pretty great way to honor the deceased. Rather than the item sitting unused and collecting dust in your storage unit - and you feeling guilt or resentment about it - someone who cant otherwise afford to purchase such an item gets to have and use it.
4. Sell it. I believe that if someone gives or leaves an item to you, its yours to do with as you wish. If its something you cant use or dont want to keep, and it has monetary value, go ahead and sell it. Before selling it to the highest bidder, though, you may want to see if a friend or family member of the deceased wants to buy or trade for it.
If it doesnt sit well with you to profit from the transaction, you can always donate the item - or the money you make selling it - to a cause championed by you or your loved one.
Your turn: Do you think its OK to get rid of inherited items? How have you handled this sensitive situation?
- New Bookshelves to Hold an Inherited Book Collection
- Mix Old With New With Contemporary Kitchen Table Sets
- Store Family Mementos on a Mantel
Question: I live in a condo with 150 different units. Our assessments are based on our square footage. Residents can pay a monthly rent for parking spaces, while guests pay by hour to park in the garage.
Our assessments are high since we have only have 150 units. The garage loses 90,000 a year. Instead of raising the rates on parking, our board chooses to pay the loss by taking it out of our assessments.
I asked the board why we are losing money and they blame it on the union. They say every attendant must be a union member. I believe we have one attendant each 8 hour period. I dont have a car, and feel I am paying for a privilege that my neighbors are taking advantage of.
My question: since everything else is based on square footage, is it fair or right that I have to contribute so much money to a garage that is losing money.
By the way, I feel that the monthly parking is under charged. Mimi.
Answer: Dear Mimi. From your question, it is not clear you are directly paying the monthly rent for parking. However, if the condo is losing money each year, then there is an indirect payment from you and all other owners.
Just because you dont have a car does not mean you dont have to contribute to the overall expenses of the association. I am always reminded of the unit owner who lived on the first floor and objected to paying for elevator repairs because he never uses the elevator.
Keep in mind that a condominium association does not own anything. Each owner has a percentage interest assigned to their unit, and thus you own that percentage in the common elements, including the garage.
Have you discussed your concerns with other unit owners - whether or not they park in the garage. I suspect, however, those owners who park are happy they dont have to pay a lot of money for the privilege of using the garage.
In fact, I wonder whether the board members themselves park in the garage, and thus are purposely keeping the monthly fee low. If thats the case, that is a clear case of breach of fiduciary duty.
I understand that garage attendants must be union members, but that does not excuse the board from taking all necessary steps - including perhaps dropping the number of attendants and/or raising the parking fees for owners as well as daily renters.
In my opinion, it is unconscionable for the garage to lose so much money. If the board does not address the problem, you really only have a couple of alternatives: first, try to get elected to the board so you can have some influence; sell your unit and move out, or just accept the situation and put up with it.
You can also try to mount a campaign to "throw the rascals out", but you will need majority support in the entire complex. That may be difficult since those with cars may not be willing to support your efforts.
Frequently the real estate that had been owned by a person now deceased is made available for sale through a procedure commonly known as a "probate sale." When this happens a somewhat complex set of rules comes into play, especially, of course, in California.
The personal representative of the estate also known as the executor or the administrator, depending on the circumstances may seek purchasers directly or he may list the property for sale with a real estate broker. If the property is listed, the listing period may not exceed ninety days California Probate Code 10150a. Extensions of up to ninety days each may be granted if needed.
Prospective purchasers often find that things get a bit confusing when an offer is made. Generally, negotiations will be conducted as in an ordinary sale. That is, the offer may be presented to the executor, that person might then issue a counter-offer, there could then be a counter to that, etc. However, even when the executor and the purchaser have come to terms, the deal is still not final.
The estates acceptance is subject to confirmation by the court. The executor must petition the court for a hearing date for the purposes of confirming the sale. That is a public hearing, and notice of it is made public. The date set for the hearing will depend on the court calendar.
At the time of the hearing other interested parties may bid on the property as well. The Probate Code sets forth a formula for determining the minimum amount of the first overbid. The first overbid amount must be at least "10 percent more on the first ten thousand dollars 10,000 of the original bid and 5 percent more on the amount of the original bid in excess of ten thousand dollars 10,000 " [Probate Code 10311a1]
Suppose, for example, that an executor had accepted an offer of 300,000, and that you came to bid on the property at the confirmation hearing. You couldnt open by bidding 301,000. According to the formula the first overbid would have to be at least 315,500. 10 of the first 10,000 = 1,000, 5 of 290,000 = 14,500.
After the minimum overbid has been made, there can, of course, be further bids. These are not subject to a formula, and the court may set the bid amounts at that time. For example, the judge can say that he will hear further overbids only in increments of 500.
If there is bidding, and the highest offer is on different terms than the originally accepted offer, the court will not confirm the highest offer unless its terms are acceptable to the estates representative. For example, the estate might have preferred and originally accepted an offer that involved credit such as carrying back a long-term mortgage. It is a myth that probate sales must only be cash to the seller. If an overbid offer were for cash, it would not have to be accepted. Similarly, if the accepted offer had been for cash and the overbid involved credit.
In general, the probate rules and procedures are designed to bring the best price to the estate. In that regard, the court is granted a great deal of discretion. Even with overbids, the court may disallow a sale, and order a new one, if it feels the price is not appropriate.
The code also directs the court to determine that the property received adequate exposure to the market. Listing brokers of probate sales need to be prepared to show that the property was marketed thoroughly.
There is a very complex set of rules for determining brokerage commissions in the event of an overbid situation, and it would not be beneficial to recite them here -- especially because they can be set aside by the court. Brokers need to warily remember Probate Code 10161a, "whether or not the agent or broker has a contract with the personal representative, the fee, commission, or other compensation of an agent or brokershall be the amount the court, in its discretion, determines to be reasonable..." [my emphasis]
It is often thought that probate sales represent the opportunity to find "a steal". Given the procedures set forth for making such sales, that is highly unlikely.
The Canada Revenue Agency CRA continues to follow through on the crackdown it announced last year on people who fail to report income from real estate transactions.
The agency says that from April 2015 to March 2017, real estate transaction audits found 329.4 million in assessed income that had not been reported. That resulted in more than 17 million in penalties, "primarily associated with Canadas two major real estate markets in Toronto and Vancouver," says the CRA.
The agency says it conducts audits on real estate transactions on a regular basis, "including in regions of Canada where economic factors may increase the risk of non-compliance." In 2015 it doubled its efforts on the real estate sector in B.C. and now it has started a review of 500 high-dollar-value real estate transactions in that province "to uncover any tax issues that may not have already been identified."
If a taxpayer knowingly makes a false statement when filing a return, they will be assessed a penalty equal to 50 per cent of the additional tax payable. In the last two years, 885 such penalties were assessed. The largest penalty was almost 2.5 million.
In addition to income tax, the CRA also checks to see if GST/HST payments have been made. It also reviews whether rebates that have been claimed for new homes or rental housing are legitimate.
In Ontario, the agency looked at 14,735 files for the GST/HST New Housing and New Residential Rental Rebates programs, recovering 190.8 million. In B.C., 2,546 audits recouped 10.8 million.
"Builders of new residences or rental properties are required to collect and remit the GST/HST to the CRA when they sell, rent out for the first time, or appropriate the property for personal use," says the CRA. "Additionally, purchasers of new residences must ensure they abide by the rules when applying for new housing rebates."
Builders of new or "substantially renovated homes" must charge and collect GST/HST when the home is sold and report the tax.
"If a builder leases a new or substantially renovated home, the builder is deemed to have sold the home to themselves. The GST/HST is payable and collectible at once on the fair market value of the home, including the land value, and the builder must report that tax to the CRA," says the agency.
Most resale homes are exempt from GST/HST, but "there may also be GST/HST implications for flipping transactions, if a property is new or has been substantially renovated," says the CRA.
There were 2,110 Ontario files audited for income tax compliance, with 30.4 million recovered, while in B.C. 288 income tax audits yielded 12.7 million in unreported taxes.
Capital gains on the sale of a taxpayers principal residence are generally exempt from taxes. However, beginning with the 2016 tax year, taxpayers who sell their principal residence must report the sale when completing their income tax returns.
"For the sale of a principal residence in 2016 or later tax years, CRA will only allow the principal residence exemption if you report the sale and designation of principal residence in your income tax return. If you forget to make a designation of principal residence in the year of the sale, it is very important to ask the CRA to amend your income tax and benefit return for that year. Under proposed changes, the CRA will be able to accept a late designation in certain circumstances, but a penalty may apply."
The agency says a non-resident who invests in property in Canada "is liable to pay tax on gains that arise from the sale of that property and is generally not eligible for the principal residence exemption."
The CRA determines a persons residency status on a case-by-case basis, considering their residential ties in Canada, the purpose and duration of their visits outside of Canada and their social and economic ties outside of the country.
"Residency status should not be confused with citizenship," says the CRA. "Non-residents only have to report their Canadian-source income, unless a tax treaty provides otherwise. An individuals residency status is therefore essential in determining what income must be reported."
Taxpayers who think they have made a mistake or who forgot to report real estate income can correct the record here. They may also be able to take advantage of the Voluntary Disclosures Program where the CRA says it may "offer you a second chance to make things right."
The agency says it is continuing to strengthen >"Our government has committed to protecting the fairness and integrity of the tax system for all Canadians, notably by cracking down on tax cheating in real estate transactions," says Minister of National Revenue Diane Lebouthillier. "This means that, without exception, every taxpayer abides by the same tax laws."
You just bought your first home. Congratulations: Youre an adult Now its time to fill it up. But if you were planning to pack up those ratty old beanbag chairs and the bed that awakens you with a morning backache and move them to your new place, we have a few suggestions. Its time for a grown-up upgrade. Heres where to start.
Invest in the important staples
You can scrimp on your mattress because its not something that guests will see, right? Not so fast. A good mattress should be at the top of your list because it affects something more important than the opinions of friends and family: Your health.
"You wouldnt run a marathon or hike a mountain without the right gear. And yet, despite spending a third of our lives sleeping, many of us havent adequately prepared in the bedroom - when it comes to mattresses, that is," said Huffington Post. "You might be tempted to blame your budget for continuing to doze on a less-than-ideal mattress, but considering justnbsp;a little bit more shut-eyenbsp;can help you lose weight, improve your memory and live longer, can you really put a price tag on good sleep? But the wrong mattress - or the mattress thats simply too old - can be the cause of more than that crick in your neck or yournbsp;lower back pain. Here are five sneakier ways your mattress affects your sleep -nbsp;andnbsp;your health.
If you just cant bring yourself to spring for that kind of big-ticket item right now, look for opportunities to spread out payments with a zero percent interest deal, which more and more retailers are offering. Go to a place like Rooms to Go and you might be able to get your mattress and a living room set with monthly payments that are right around what you and your honey would pay for a nice lunch.
Measure, measure, measure
Having furniture thats too small or too large for a room can make it function poorly and look "off." Measure ahead of time so you know what to look for. Stores like HomeGoods have stacks of paper measuring sticks laying arouond, but you wont always be that lucky. Measure your space and input everything in your phone, stash a measuring tape in your bag, and you wont have to guess if something will work when youre out shopping.
Dress up the bed
One of the best ways to make a bedroom look pulled together is with a headboard. But many people dont even take a look at options because they assume they will be too expensive. You can get a super chic headboard for a minimal spend if you know where to go. This tufted headboard from Overstock looks like it would cost you about as much as a monthly mortgage payment, but its just 137.
Buy a decent couch
The couch falls squa>
Youll hate yourself - and your couch - if you buy super cheap just to get something in the room. And were speaking from experience. Our first cheapie couch purchased online, BTW started falling apart after about a month. Contrast that against what Sothebys-trained home shopping expert Jennifer Litwin, author of Best Furniture Buying Tips Ever, says should be the lifespan of the couch: "The general prognosis isnbsp;about 10 to 15 years, she told The Nest. You can scrimp on other, easily replaceable items like side tables and chairs that wont be used often, but when it comes to that couch: Go ahead and splurge a little.
Like and follow influential sites
Speaking of chairshellip;
Just today we learned about this great-looking 43 chair on Amazon that we never would have known about if we werent fans of MyDomaine. And, by fans, we mean we follow them on Facebook. "The midcentury-modern chairs feature velvet upholstering, steel legs, and are available in dusty rose, moss green, gray-green, and teal, to name a few," they said. Theyre sold in a set of two, starting at 85."
Sites like Apartment Therapy and Design Sponge are great places to get interior design ideas, and liking and following a few favorite stores like World Market and HomeGoods and online sites like Wayfair and One Kings Lane is a great way to keep up to date on sales and trends.
Be careful about buying online
When comfort and quality are key, you want to be careful about buying without being able to see, touch, and sit. If you just have to have it, at least you can read what others have to say before producing your credit card. Back to that 43 chair from Amazon: "How do you know if chairs sold on Amazon look and feel as luxe in real life," asked MyDomaine. "Members of the Facebook group purchased the chairs and posted images of the items IRL, confirming that they live up to the hype.nbsp;Yes, if the long chain of comments, likes, and photos are any indication, this might be one of Amazons best-kept secrets."
Buy some art
Real art, from real actual artists. You can find some surprisingly affordable pieces that will give your home a personal touch. "Collecting art can be an expensive habit, but these days there are plenty of places to get amazing original art for a great price," said POPSUGAR. Like Minted, one of our favorite spots for original art that "discovers talent through ongoing design competitions. Designers submit, the Minted community votes to tell them what to sell, and we end up with seemingly limitless options at super affordable prices," they said.
That doesnt mean you need to give up all your posters although, we adults call them "art prints." Just get them framed nicely. "Luckily, framing has never been easier, now that there are online services like Framebridge," said Refinery29. "And when all else fails, you cant go wrong with the basicnbsp;Ikea RIBBA framesnbsp;just make sure the art fits and doesnt slip and slide around when its hanging on the wall."
Dont be afraid to go to IKEA
IKEA is good for more than frames, even though you probably equate grown-up furniture with stuff you dont have to put together yourself. But not everything has to be a permanent fixture when youre just starting out. Concentrating on the big-ticket items may leave limited funds available to fill in the rest of your place. Many a new homeowner has hit the big blue-and-yellow warehouse and headed straight for the MALM dresser. Its cheap starting at 54 for a two-drawer version, its functional, and if you have a little bit of creativitymdash;or the ability to do some basic research and follow directionsmdash;you can turn it into something that looks far more expensive.
Were also loving this South Shore Cookie 6-Drawer Double Dresser in gray and white from Walmart, which could give you the function in you need in an extra bedroom or guest room with a sleek, modern look. We guarantee your guests will never know where it came fromhellip;unless they were savvy enough to purchase on for their own home.
Get a few key housewares
Living like an adult isnt just about what you put stuff on. Its also about the stuff you put on you. Still using the same stiff sheets you bought for your first apartment or ratty towels youd be embarrassed for company to see? "Youll feel more grown-up the second you stop drying off your body with a towel that has a fish in sunglasses on it," said Refinery29."
Ever notice how you feel especially amorous when youre in a nice hotel with your honey? Everything from the luxury bedding to the clean and orderly nature of the space can add to your desire to get close. You can use some of those ideas as a starting point when creating a sexy bedroom in your own home.
The seduction is on. Youre moving toward the bed, locked in an embrace, and thenyou hit the side table and that stack of books and papers tumbles to the ground. Hello, mood killer Decluttering is a recommended strategy throughout the home - one that can lower stress and also keep your home looking neater and cleanerbut it has obvious benefits in the bedroom, like eliminating the possibility that your piles of stuff will interrupt your romantic moment.
Choose the right lighting
Bright lights overhead probably wont make you feel like undressing. Theyre more likely to make you feel like youre being interrogated definitely not sexy. Soft lighting can set the mood, and, even better, install dimmers so you can control the amount of light in the room at all times.
"A lot of men and women grapple with lighting," Ian Kerner, PhD, told Womens Health. "Either its too light or its not enough light for visual stimulation. And according to a recentWomens Healthsurvey, 74 percent of men and 72 percent of women want those lights dimmed during intimate times - but not totally off. The easy solution: a simple dimmer switch."
Be careful with your color choices
"While cool colors are actually better for supporting a good nights sleep, they are are not hot, stimulating colors," said Apartment Therapy. "Aim somewhere in the middle. AVOID red-light district red and go for warm greys, lavender, warm greens, browns, tans, rose if you really want it feminine. Neutral colors rock. Think "spa chic" and raw linen, which is so popular right now. China White is a lovely not too warm white, which goes really well with little warm pops of color in bedding, pillows, rugs, curtains or lampshades."
Make it comfortable
A lumpy bed wont serve anyone well, especially if you have sex on the mind. For the best results, get a mattress that isnt too soft and isnt too firm. A sore back may put an end to your romantic thoughts for the evening, or longer. And dont forget the headboard - for obvious reasons.
Its all about the fabric
"You want to consider all the senses when in the bedroom and softness of touch is a big one," said Apartment Therapy. Think super soft, high-quality bedding, a rug with a soft texture, cushy pillows. Scratchy surfaces are a turnoff in any setting.
Follow the principles of Feng Shui
"Feng shui, often called the art of placement, is an ancient oriental science incorporating astronomy, geography, environment, magnetic fields, physics and natural elements. The Chinese have been using it four thousand years to optimize living and working environments, with an amazing track record of benefits in health, happiness, prosperity and >"The bedroom is especially important in this system, since its the key area of the house where love, intimacy,
According to Wallace J. Nichols, in his book "Blue Mind," our brains are hardwired to react positively to water. Our predisposition to embrace water might be the reason being near it can actually calm us.
But water lovers probably donrsquo;t need to be told how >